#3 municipal solid waste – MSW to BioFuel? Yes!

ALERT – I made a big mistake. I did not research enough of this “Natural Gas” issue. You can find out what needs to be done first, HERE, before we can Happily go ahead with waste to fuel.

a supply and a demand!

In this post:
Biofuel Basics used in MSW to BioFuel,
FastOx® gasification – SierraEnergy,
Enerkem – We’re building the Bioeconomy
Fulcrom – Our Feedstock: Municipal solid waste, our product: Fuel
Velocys – bio-jet fuel
Cogent Energy Systems – Eliminate local waste – make local Fuel
…a list at the bottom of other posts about WasteRushes…..

a supply and a demand!

All those countries with all that trash and all those drivers who need fuel.

The cities could take care of fuel.
Can we rid the world of landfills by making green fuel?

We know people are working on it.
Where are we with this? ……closer than you think!

Waste to Fuel
As I said before, there are now, a number of companies out there that have developed equipment that literally takes the ‘Residual Waste’ ( including the organics, dirty plastics, paper, cardboard, and diapers) and sends it directly to a facility/technology that turns it into non-fossil fuel.   They are rather sophisticated complicated machines that for the most part have only recently proven their technology.

>But, what they do is so exactly what this burning planet needs.<   

This is a Waste Rush ! (like the Gold Rush) The faster we can get this technology working in every big city in the world ,the cleaner planet Earth will be on the ground and in the air!

Return on Investment, Return on Investment, Return on Investment

  • Everyone continues to worry about “Return On Investment” (ROI) .
  • Scared to try. I do not blame them, but….
  • If you ask me, the time has come to take all the risks!
  • Governments, at any level, citizens/businesses with significant waste volumes, should find a “trash to biofuel” solution and spend the money.
  • Most of them yield some kind of product at the end of the cycle, if not only fuel…. there is more to ROI than just expenditures!

We’re almost there! We need to move faster!

They are building a network across the USA for dispensing greener fuel! ………. So the demand has outlets…..

not only in the USA!

There are already biofuels in the pipes! RNG, as cng and lng = bio-methane, natural gas and fleets of trucks to use it, Syngas and ethanol, all to replace petroleum in the global fuel pool.

Biofuel Basics
Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called “biofuels,” to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel, both of which represent the first generation of biofuel technology. But there others………..

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles
More than a dozen alternative fuels are in production or under development for use in alternative fuel vehicles and advanced technology vehicles. Government and private-sector vehicle fleets are the primary users for most of these fuels and vehicles, but individual consumers are increasingly interested in them. Using alternative fuels and advanced vehicles instead of conventional fuels and vehicles helps the United States conserve fuel and lower vehicle emissions.

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a renewable fuel that can be made from various plant materials, collectively known as “biomass.” Ethanol is an alcohol used as a blending agent with gasoline to increase octane and cut down carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions.
The most common blend of ethanol is E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline). Some vehicles, called flexible fuel vehicles, are designed to run on E85 (a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51%–83% ethanol, depending on geography and season), an alternative fuel with much higher ethanol content than regular gasoline. Roughly 97% of gasoline in the United States contains some ethanol.
Most ethanol is made from plant starches and sugars, but scientists are continuing to develop technologies that use cellulose and hemicellulose, the non-edible fibrous material of plant matter. In fact, there are commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries operating.
The US Dept. of Energy has a brief guide to help you determine if your vehicle can run on E85 (Flex Fuel).

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas (SNG) and for producing ammonia or methanol. Syngas is usually a product of coal gasification and the main application is electricity generation. Syngas is combustible and can be used as a fuel of internal combustion engines. Historically, syngas has been used as a replacement for gasoline, when gasoline supply has been limited; for example, wood gas was used to power cars in Europe during WWII (in Germany alone half a million cars were built or rebuilt to run on wood gas). Syngas, however, has less than half the energy density of natural gas.

No more landfills by making green fuel?
How Great!
There are a number of companies working on it….

#1 Here is one!
FastOx® gasification from SierraEnergy

Powering communities with trash

MSW to BioFuel infographic
2:57 minutes ………………………..How the FastOx® gasification works.

Scaling Up
Davis, CA – July 29, 2019 Sierra Energy Corporation announced today that it has closed a $33 million Series A investment round led by Breakthrough Energy Ventures and joined by Cox Investment Holdings, Inc., BNP Paribas SA, Twynam Investments Pty Ltd, Formica Ventures AB, and The March Fund I LP. The funding will help Sierra Energy further develop and commercialize its revolutionary FastOx® gasification technology, which converts virtually any waste into clean, renewable energy and fuels without burning.

Sierra Energy’s FastOx technology, developed by Sierra Energy and supported by grant funding from the Department of Defense and the California Energy Commission, uses oxygen and steam to heat waste to 4,000°F (2,200°C). At this temperature, all waste breaks down to the molecular level, converting organic material into an energy-dense syngas and allowing the recovery of inorganic material as either a non-leaching stone or molten metal. Sierra Energy’s FastOx technology, which is modular and can be scaled to large size, does not produce any process emissions and all outputs are saleable as end products. The company’s first commercial-scale demonstration facility is located at U.S. Army Garrison Fort Hunter Liggett in Monterey County, California.

“The world is drowning in trash which, when landfilled, is a leading generator of methane, a greenhouse gas that is 86 times more harmful to our climate than carbon dioxide.” said Mike Hart, Sierra Energy’s CEO. “Our FastOx gasification technology can efficiently and cost-effectively convert this trash into electricity, hydrogen, renewable natural gas, diesel, ammonia, and a variety of other valuable end-products. When you combine our technology with recycling and other waste diversion strategies, you have the solution to the world’s waste problem and a valuable source of renewable energy.”

Sierra Energy End Products
the products you can create with syngas from FastOx gasification are:
Electricity – Using FastOx gasification, the 250 million metric tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) sent annually to landfills in the U.S. could power close to 14 million homes.
Diesel (and other Fischer-Tropsch liquids such as gasoline) Diesel produced by the FastOx gasification system can be up to thirty times cleaner than typical diesel produced from fossil fuels.
Hydrogen – If California’s landfilled waste was converted into hydrogen and used for transportation fuel, it would offset emissions equivalent to half of the state’s automobile fleet.
Ammonia – The base of most fertilizers, ammonia is conventionally produced using fossil fuels. Gasification-derived ammonia and chemicals are sustainably produced and aid in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Byproduct of Inert Stone

SierraEnergy website has some useful Tools:
Knowledge Base

1:43 minutes The Components of FastOx® gasification

We need investors for these systems…even if they have few projects to date. We need to find as many opportunities as possible to try them out…….

#2 and here is another!
Enerkem – We’re building the Bioeconomy. 

replaces petroleum transportation fuels and chemicals from garbage.

MSW to BioFuel installation
ENERKEM’S ALBERTA BIOFUELS PROJECT: Enerkem Alberta Biofuels LP, a subsidiary of Montreal-based Enerkem Inc., has built the world’s first commercial-scale biorefinery using non-recyclable municipal solid waste as feedstock. The next-generation cellulosic ethanol plant is capable of converting 100,000 Bone Dry Metric Tons (BDMT) of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) into 38 million litres of cellulosic ethanol. The project is located next to the City of Edmonton Integrated Waste Management Centre (EWMC).

We’re building the Bioeconomy.  Turning trash into clean fuels and chemicals.

Since 2000, Enerkem has tested and validated a number of different feedstocks – from solid waste coming from several municipalities to dozens of other types of residues. In Enerkem’s system, these feedstocks are converted into methanol, ethanol or other renewable chemicals.

Enerkem’s exclusive process is environmentally sound. It requires relatively low temperatures and pressures, which reduce energy requirements and costs. Enerkem’s proprietary technology was rigorously scaled up from pilot to demonstration to commercial stage during an unprecedented period of 10 years of disciplined efforts.
Enerkem’s 4-step thermochemical process:
1. feedstock preparation
2. gasification
3. leaning and conditioning of syngas
4. catalytic synthesis

MSW to BioFuel infographic

Enerkem – more BioFuels from Waste projects are in development.

Several Enerkem biorefineries are now in development around the world, based on the company’s modular and standardized manufacturing approach. In addition to licensing its technology, Enerkem provides fully fabricated modular equipment and handles assembly on site.

The developments includes a series of publicly announced projects in North America and Europe. Tell us about your project or interest in Enerkem technology.

#3 and here is another!


Fulcrom – Our Feedstock is Municipal Solid Waste our product is Non-fossil Fuel.

Our Feedstock – Municipal solid waste
Our Process:

Fulcrum has developed and demonstrated a proprietary thermochemical process that converts municipal solid waste, or MSW, feedstock into low-carbon renewable transportation fuels including jet fuel and diesel. Our process has been reviewed by numerous third parties including BP, United Airlines, the U.S. Department of Defense and independent engineers Leidos and Black & Veatch.

Fulcrum’s process combines gasification technology with a Fischer-Tropsch (“FT”) fuel process for the efficient, low-cost production of renewable transportation fuels. MSW is delivered to the Company’s plants where it is processed to remove recyclable products and other material not suitable for processing. A prepared waste feedstock then enters the gasification process where it is converted to a synthesis gas. This syngas then enters the FT process where it reacts with a proprietary catalyst to form a FT product which is then upgraded to a transportation fuel.

Fulcrum’s synthetic crude (syncrude) product is a replacement for crude oil and will be upgraded to jet fuel and diesel. This low-cost, low-carbon drop-in fuel has several distinct advantages compared to conventional crude oils:
Environmentally Friendly: expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 80 percent compared to conventional crude oil.
Cost Effective: Our fuel contains very few metals and nitrogen compounds, and no sulfur. This eliminates costly refining steps keeping our product competitively priced.
Diverse: able to convert MSW into a market grade fuel offering customers the product they want, in the markets they want.
Certified: Fulcrum’s fuel is tested, certified and approved for aviation worldwide.

MSW processing
Sierra Phase One: Feedstock Processing Facility (FPF)

One Sierra Phase: Feedstock Processing Facility (FPF)
Two Sierra Phase: Biorefinery
Phase 2 of our Sierra project is the Sierra Biorefinery where the prepared MSW feedstock produced at the FPF will be converted into a low-carbon syncrude. The syncrude product will then be transported to a Marathon Petroleum refinery to be further processed into transportation fuel. The Biorefinery, currently under construction, is expected to begin operations in 2020.

#4 and here is another!

From bin bags to planes: Shell, BA plan EU’s first waste-to-jet fuel plant

LONDON, 20, Aug 2019 (Reuters) – Airplanes could be powered by jet fuel made from household rubbish from 2024 under plans by Shell, British Airways and Velocys to build Europe’s first large-scale plant to produce jet fuel from domestic and commercial waste.

Shell, BA and Velocys – who have applied for planning permission for the plant from local authorities in North East Lincolnshire – are targeting domestic or commercial black bag waste that would otherwise end up in landfills or incinerators.

#5 Here is one that is focused on local waste!


Cogent Energy SystemsEliminate local waste Create on-site energy

Cogent’s core innovation is the new process of Ionic Gasification, our unprecedented “molecular approach” to feedstock conversion. Hyper-high temperatures of 10,000 degrees Celsius are observed in the core of the reaction zone, 5-15x hotter than other conversion processes such as incineration, traditional gasification, and pyrolysis. Carbon vaporizes at these temperatures, breaking down completely into gaseous carbon atoms. Once immersed in the Ionic Gasification zone, waste spontaneously breaks all the way down to individual atoms, yielding complete single-step conversion to clean synthesis gas (syngas) that contains virtually no byproducts, long-chain hydrocarbons, toxins, or harmful elements.

Because of the extremely high heat and processing efficiency of the Ionic Gasifier technology, the HelioStorm Gasifier can be fed any kind of feedstock. Any type of material can be processed, with no sorting required. The system has been tested on feedstocks as varied as biomass, municipal solid waste, pyrolysis oil, and waste coal.

Regardless of the input, the output from the HelioStorm Gasifier is a clean, energy-containing synthesis gas (syngas) comprised primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and free of other byproducts, long-chain hydrocarbons, and contaminants. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide can be varied to the desired composition depending on the feedstock, processing conditions, and post-processing adjustments.  HelioStorm-based systems then utilize this syngas as a fuelstock for systems that generate electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and valuable chemicals that clients either use or sell.

MSW machine to biofuel

On-ANY-Site WasteToEnergy

No matter how small or remoteCogent users can turn their local waste stream into clean, sustainable energy. In our world, carbon-based waste is a valuable renewable energy source. Globally, MILLIONS of small-scale waste producers are actively searching for a viable solution to their waste destruction and energy generation needs.
Farms, Hospitals, Industrial Parks, Remote Communities, to name just a few…….

Do you know a city, community, building that is ready for this technology?

Other posts on the subject of WASTE to Energy

Anaerobic Digestion In Full Swing – #1 Waste To Energy?
CNG, LNG, RNG Fuelling Stations – #2 Waste To Energy
#3 Municipal Solid Waste – MSW To BioFuel? Yes!
Too Much Methane !
The Greenhouse Gases List …..A Re-Review

Urban Energy Retrofits For Existing Buildings
Climate Retrofits On Land Or At Sea

Can We, Are We Pulling In The Excess CO₂ ?
Fuel From Air? – Capture CO₂
Cellulosic Ethanol – One Of Many DSM Sustainability Projects
Industrial Zone – Closed-Loop Networking
Shipping’s Carbon Footprint And Your Small Business >> Your Vote

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